In this article we will discuss about the Tenth Five Year Plan of India. After reading this article you will learn about: 1. Approach Paper of the Tenth Plan 2. Approach Paper of the Tenth Plan 3. Important Targets of the Tenth Plan.
Approach Paper of the Tenth Plan:
The Approach Paper of the Tenth Plan was unanimously approved by the National Development Council in its meeting held on 1st September, 2001. The Planning Commission, in its approach paper, set an ambitious target of 8.0 per cent growth rate in gross domestic product during the Tenth Plan.
The approach paper focuses on the need for revamping resource structure and also for reorienting expenditure management so as to achieve the other targets set by it for the Tenth Plan, especially with regard to reduction of poverty ratio to 20 per cent by 2007, reduction of gender gaps in life expectancy and literacy by. 50 per cent, universalisation of primary education by the end of the Plan, reduction of decadal growth of population to 16.2 per cent in the period between 2001 and 2011 and finally, reduction of unemployment through growth related infrastructural and social development programmes.
Objectives of Tenth Plan:
Traditionally, the level of per capita income has been regarded as a summary indicator of the economic well being of the country and growth targets have therefore focused on growth in per capita income or per capita GDP.
In the past, our growth rates of GDP have been such as to double our per capita income over a period of 20 years or so. Recognising the importance of making a quantum jump compared with past performance, the Prime Minister has directed the Planning Commission to examine the feasibility of doubling per capita income in the next ten years.
With population expected to grow at about 1.6 per cent per annum, this target required the rate of growth of GDP to be around 8.7 per cent over the Tenth and Eleventh Plan periods.
This approach paper proposed that the Tenth Plan should aim at an indicative target of 8.0 per cent GDP growth for the period 2002-07. This was lower than the growth rate of 8.7 per cent needed to double per capita income over the next ten years, but it was viewed as an intermediate target for the first half of the period.
It was certainly a very ambitious target, especially in view of the fact that GDP growth had decelerated to around 6 per cent at present. Even if the deceleration was viewed as a short term phenomenon, the medium term performance of the economy over the past several years was only about 6.5 per cent. Proposed 8 per cent growth target therefore involved an increase of at least 1.5 percentage points over the recent medium term performance.
Economic growth cannot be the only objective for national planning and indeed over the years, development objectives are being defined not just in terms of increases in GDP or per capita income but more broader in terms of enhancement of human well being.
This includes not only an adequate level of consumption of food and other types of consumer goods but also access to basic social services especially education, health, availability of drinking water and basic sanitation.
It also includes the expansion of economic and social opportunities for all individuals and groups reduction in disparities and greater participation in decision making. Tenth Plan must therefore set suitable targets in these areas to ensure significant progress towards improvement in the quality of life of all our people.
Important Targets of the Tenth Plan:
To reflect the importance of these dimensions in development planning the Tenth Plan must establish specific and monitor-able targets for a few key indicators of human development. It is proposed that in addition to the 8 per cent growth target, the targets given below should also be considered as being central to the attainment of the objectives of the plan.
Monitor-able Targets for the Tenth Plan and Beyond:
1. Reduction of poverty ratio by 5 percentage points by 2007 and by 15 percentage points by 2012;
2. Providing gainful high-quality employment to the addition to the labour force over the Tenth Plan period;
3. All children in school by 2003; all children to complete 5 years of schooling by 2007;
4. Reduction of gender gaps in literacy and wage rates by at least 50 per cent by 2007;
5. Reduction in the decadal rate of population growth between 2001 and 2011 to 16.2 per cent;
6. Increase in Literacy rates to 75 per cent within the Plan period;
7. Reduction of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) to 45 per 1000 live births by 2007 and to 28 by 2012;
8. Reduction of Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) to 22 per 1000 live births by 2007 and to 11 by 2012;
9. Increase in forest and tree cover to 25 per cent by 2007 and 33 per cent by 2012;
10. All villages to have sustained access to potable drinking water within the Plan period; and
11. Cleaning of major polluted rivers by 2007 and other notified stretches by 2012.
Above mentioned social targets will require a substantial allocation of resources to the social sector and major improvements in governance to make effective use of these resources. It must also be recognized that achievements of these targets is not independent of the achievement of high growth.
Indeed, high growth rates will generate the flow of public resources needed to sustain improvements in social indicators. The Plan has traditionally focused on setting national targets but recent experience suggests that the performance of different states varies considerably.